There are many definitions of Northern Europe, though once again I will use EuroVoc definition of Northern Europe.
Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent that includes Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden, the group known as the Nordic countries, and Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania the group known as the Baltic states.
Countries in Northern Europe generally have developed economies and some of the highest standards of living in the world. They often score highly on surveys measuring quality of life, such as the Human Development Index. They generally have a small population relative to their size, most of whom live in cities. The population densities are fairly low, due to challenges from climate and terrain. as the northern most areas are cold climates, and the cultivatable land is so spread out.
Click on any country to view my travel photos and stories.
Estonia, a former Soviet Republic, is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. The territory of Estonia consists of the mainland and of 2,222 islands in the Baltic Sea. Estonia has been dominated by foreign powers through much of its history. After centuries of successive rule by Germans, Danes, Swedes, Poles and Russians, a distinct Estonian national identity began to emerge in the early 20th centuries.
Finland is a Nordic country located in Northern Europe. From the late 13th century, Finland gradually became an integral part of Sweden. In 1809, Finland was annexed by the Russian Empire as the autonomous Grand Duchy of Finland. In 1906, Finland became the first European state to grant all adult citizens the right to vote, and the first in the world to give all adult citizens the right to run for public office. Finland ranked first on the World Happiness Report report for 2018, 2019 and 2020.
Lithuania, a former Soviet Republic, is a country on the eastern coast of the Baltic Sea in Northern Europe. For centuries, the southeastern shores of the Baltic Sea were inhabited by various Baltic tribes. In the 1230s, the Lithuanian lands were united and the Kingdom of Lithuania was created in 1253. During the 14th century, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania was the largest country in Europe with territories including present-day Lithuania, Belarus, Ukraine, and parts of Poland and Russia.
Norway (the “northern way”), officially the Kingdom of Norway, is a Nordic country in Northern Europe whose mainland territory comprises the western and northernmost portion of the Scandinavian Peninsula, about 50,000 islands and the Antarctic territories.